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costs/benefits of electronic detonators and measure their effects on primary crusher productivity. 9 blasts (3 shock tube blasts, 6 electronic blasts). Measured electricity consumption & primary crusher throughput. Change to Electronic Detonators resulted in a 7% reduction in primary electricity costs and a 15% increase in primary crusher productivity.
This paper discusses the application of current fragmentation models for underground blasting, establishes a conceptual fragmentation model for underground operations, and discusses the applicability of the mine-to-mill approach for underground blasting. Additionally, this paper also discusses selected case studies where the mine-to-mill approach is applied to underground mining operations.
Optimization of surface blasting based on 3D models from drone imagery and a closed loop that starts with an automatic analysis of the geometry and the geological conditions and ends with an objective assessment of the blast result.